What is securing of cargo?
Different types and materials of cargo is carried from oceans to different parts of the world safely, it is only possible of efficient cargo securing. When a ship enters a terminal for loading of cargo like bulk cargos (i.e. grain, coal, ore, cement),container and timber, etc. There are different codes and regulations laid by administration to determine if cargo secured properly on ships or not. IMSBC,IBC,IGC,CSS are some of the code to be referred by both ship operators and loading terminals for safely and reliable cargo securing operations. It is a duty of port state control of respective country to check and detain the ships ,which are not in compliance with the mentioned above. Improper cargo securing leads to capsizing of ships because of cargo shifting ,rejection of whole batch of cargo by owner because of damage caused to cargo , moisture gets accumulated inside the bulk cargo and cause spontaneous combustion of some cargos because of negligence while storing the cargo of combustible nature.
What is common ways of securing cargo?
There are various type of cargos loaded on different ships. Securing of cargo is based on nature and properties of cargos , which will be mentioned in MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet). Every ship operators should refer and follow code of safe practices for cargo stowing and securing (CSS code). The accelerations acting onto a ship in a seaway result from a combination of longitudinal, vertical and predominantly transverse motions. The forces created by these accelerations give rise to the majority of securing problems onboard vessels. Personnel planning and supervising for the stowage and securing of cargo should have a sound practical knowledge of the application and content of the Cargo Securing Manual. SOLAS Chapter VI and VII requires a Cargo Securing Manual (CS Manual) on all types of ships engaged in carriage of cargoes other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes. A CS (cargo securing)Manual shall be prepared up to a standard at least equivalent to relevant guidelines developed by the Organization.
When should cargo lashing be used?
Basics of a cargo storage:-
Secure against movement – the ship , cargo & other cargos
- Protect against – damage by water, drainage & steel works.
- Protect sensitive cargo – chafing ship structure
- Provide adequate ventilations
- Allow access for discharge on correct port rotation
- Enable cargos to be discharged efficiently
- Do not exceed any structural limitations – BM, SF, load density
Types of dunnage
- Timber – flat boards , square bamboos , pallets
- Timber products – Plywood, chipboard, hardboards
- Paper rolls – Kraft, corrugated
- Sheeting – burlap, plastics
- Mats – straw , bamboos
- Patent devices – inflatable bag
- Other commodities – old rubber tyres
How do you secure a cargo in a shipping container?
A need was felt by the International organization trading community to have STANDARD SIZE metal box, which could used for carrying cargo. The box could be used again and again for loading cargo.
Securing of container:-
- The container are connected by each other by twist locks , to prevent it from falling.
- The lower tier container are secured with help of turnbuckles and lashing rods.
- Lashing rods length can be changed by extension hooks
- The container on the tank tops and hatch cover are secured on eyes.
Cargo Securing Gear are:-
- Twist locks
- Lashing rods
- Chain lashing
- Bridge fitting
- Extension hooks
Bridge fittings are used to secure one containers to another container loaded on top to it, provided both containers top surfaces are at the same level. Bridge fitting were never popular on board and their use is very rarely.