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Welding Defects


Welding facilitates metallic bonds between two same or totally different materials, the bonding is permanent in nature. It has plenty of sensible applications worldwide like automobile industries, ship construction and numerous different mechanical fitting connected industrial jobs. Welding Defects may be outlined as the irregularities shaped in an exceedingly specific metal due to wrong welding strategies or incorrect welding patterns, etc. The defect differs from the specified weld bead form, size, and quality. This could occur either outside or within the weld metal. Though some minute defects are permissible beneath bound conditions as a result of acceptance standards but vary as per service necessities. Welding defects confirm the endurance, longevity and performance of a selected welded piece of job.  There are plenty of welding defects as of currently and largely they’re classified into 2 main subtypes: a) Internal welding defects b) External welding defects. These sorts any encompass numerous subdivisions mentioned later. These defects have completely different reasons of prevalence and different remedies moreover.


Types of welding defects:

As mentioned on top of there are 2 major kinds of welding defects,

  • External
  • Internal

External welding defects include of:

  1. Weld crack
  2. Undercut
  3. Spatter
  4. Porosity
  5. Overlap
  6. Crater

Internal welding defects include of:

  1. Slag inclusion
  2. Incomplete penetration
  3. Incomplete fusion
  4. Necklace cracking

As per American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) welding defect causes are classified and expressed as share thanks to the subsequent reasons listed below: –

  • 41% poor method conditions
  • 32% operator error
  • 12% wrong technique
  • 10% incorrect consumables
  • 5% unhealthy weld grooves

I. External defects

These defects are those that occur inside of the welded surface. The causes and remedies of various external welding defects are listed below: –

a) Weld Cracks: One in every of the foremost unwanted style of defects typically occurring within the weld material, at the surface or heat affected zones. Moreover, weld cracks are classified as hot cracks and cold cracks.

Causes: –

  • Poor plasticity of the given base metal.
  • The presence of residual stress will cause a crack on the weld metal.
  • The rigidity of the joint that makes it tough to expand or contract the metals.
  • If there’s high content on Sulphur and carbon then conjointly the cracks might seem.
  • Using H as a shielding gas whereas welding metal materials.

Remedies: –

  • Using applicable materials might decrease the probabilities of crack.
  • If we preheat the weld joints, it ultimately leads to reduce cracks.
  • Reduce the gap between the weld joints by victimization affordable weld joints.
  • While welding releases, the clamping force slowly that will increase fill to capability of attachment material.

b) Undercut: Once the bottom of metal melts and is removed from the weld zone, a groove is made within the form of a notch, this sort of defect is thought as Undercut. It reduces the fatigue strength of the joint, usually set parallel to the junction of the weld metal and base metal at the toe or root of the weld.

 Causes: –

  • If the arc voltage and welding current is extremely high, then this defect might occur.
  • High conductor speed conjointly causes this defect.
  • Wrong conductor or incorrect conductor angle usually causes this defect.

Remedies: –

  • Use prescribed welding current for a given conductor size.
  • Adjust conductor angle to fill undercut space.
  • Controlled arc travel speed, arc length etc.

c) Spatter: Once little spherical metal droplets or particles are expelled throughout welding and continue to the bottom of the metal surface on its length, this defect arises.

Causes: –

  • High welding current will cause this defect.
  • The longer the arc, greater the probabilities of obtaining this defect.
  • Incorrect polarity.
  • Improper gas secure may additionally cause this defect.
  • Damp electrodes.
  • Electrodes coated with improper flux ingredients.

Remedies: -–

  • Correct welding current for kind & size conductor used.
  • Correct arc length & use correct arc voltage 
  • Spatter cure SC-07(Non-toxic, non- waste material, water primarily based inorganic anti–      spatter flux)
  • Can simply be removed either by hair brush.

d) Porosity: An unwanted condition wherever gas or little bubbles gets treed within the welded space.

Causes: –

  • Work piece or conductor contains/contaminated with High Sulphur & carbon.
  • Excessive wetness, rust or scale, oil, grease, etc.
  • Atmospheric gases [N2, excessive O2].
  • Anodizing coating on Al (contains moisture).
  • Using an extended arc may additionally will increase its probabilities of prevalence.
  • Fast activity rate.

Remedies: –

  • Proper choice of the conductor.
  • Decreasing the welding current.
  • Using smaller arc and deceleration the method to permit the gases to flee.
  • Remove rust or oil from the surface and use a correct technique.
  • Use low H conductor.
  • Use suggested procedure for baking & storing electrodes.

e) Overlap: This imperfectness typically happens at the toe of the weld reason being over flow of weld metal on the surface of parent metal while no fusion happens and thus the weld metal rolls out with angle less than ninety degrees.

Causes: –

  • Using a correct technique for welding.
  • Use little electrode size.
  • Less welding currents.
  • Too giant deposition in an exceedingly single run.

Remedies: –

  • Proper welding technique.
  • Use correct size of electrode.

f) Crater: A crater pipe forms throughout the ultimate solid weld pool and is commonly related to some gas porousness. This imperfectness results from shrinkage on weld pool activity. Consequently, conditions that exaggerate the liquid to solid volume modification can promote its formation. Change off the welding current can lead to the speedy activity of an outsized weld pool.

Causes: –

  • Incorrect torch angle usually causes this defect.
  • Improper welding techniques conjointly cause this defect.

  Remedies: –

  • Add filler to complete the weld pool shrinkage.
  • Progressively reducing the welding current to cut back the weld pool size.
  • Using appropriate crater fill devices.

II. Internal defects

These are defects that occur at some depth within the material. They’re visually invisible since they’re not gifted on the surface, however they require equal concern as the external ones.

a. Slag Inclusion: Gilded or non-metallic solid material could also be found within the weld metal, between weld passes or in between the weld metal and also the base metal.

Causes: –

  • Inadequate cleansing of weld metal between passes.
  • Faster rate of welding.
  • Using large conductor material.
  • Supply of Improper weld current.
  • Application of huge weld current.

 Remedies: –

  • If the welding current heat doesn’t give needed quantity of warmth for the metal to soften, the metal surface this defect happens.
  • Improper welding angle usually causes this defect.
  • Sometimes quick welding speed conjointly causes this impact.

b. Incomplete Penetration: It’s the sort of defect that is caused accidentally thanks to the joint penetration being but weld joint thickness.

Causes: –

  • Too quick or slow conductor manipulation.
  • Low welding current.
  • More arc length or arc voltage.

Remedies: –

  • Using welding current in perfect range.
  • Applying applicable groove configuration.
  • Minimal quantity of conductor manipulation.

 c. Incomplete Fusion: This defect arises largely because of the unfitness of the welder who is not able to weld the whole job piece. This happens typically due to immature activity of the liquefied metal within the joints that ultimately cause the formation of gaps within the job piece.

Causes: –

  • Low welding current.
  • Improper welding strategies.
  • Immature activity of weld metal.

Remedies: –

  • Providing correct welding arc speed.
  • Suitable cleansing techniques and positioning of the bead is very important.
  • Re-attachment is additionally done to urge eliminate this defect.

d. Necklace Cracking: Throughout welding once the weld doesn’t penetrate properly, the liquified metal doesn’t flow into the cavity and ends up in a cracking called “Necklace Cracking”. typically happens in nickel base alloys, Tin alloys and carbon steels.

Causes: –

  • Here conjointly unfitness in attachment techniques causes this defect.
  • High welding speed usually causes this defect.

Remedies: –

  • Using a correct welding technique might cut back the probabilities of this defect.
  • Using a relentless arc speed while welding.
  • Using correct welding materials.

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